How The Research Behind Keeping New Year’s Resolutions Can Help You Set Better Goals


It’s been nearly two weeks since the first day of 2017. How have you done with your New Year’s resolutions?

It’s likely after a week you’ll still be on track – 75% of us who make resolutions are successful seven days in. But by six months, this has dropped to around 40% (Norcross, 2012). Not sticking to your goals can make you feel disappointed, ashamed and unhappy, which has an effect the next time you make – or attempt to achieve – goals.

Goal-setting and success is much more complex than it looks; much more complex even than the SMART method you might’ve been taught. But by understanding this you can set more effective goals and enjoy achieving them. In this article I’ll show you the research behind goal-setting and the ways my own experience changed how I’ve set goals for 2017.




To illustrate the complexity of goal-setting, take two pieces of research, around 15 years apart involving some of the same team. In 1981, Locke and colleagues saw better performance in 90% of their studies where participants had specific and challenging goals, compared to easy or no goals. So challenging goals can help encourage high performance.

Conversely, in 2006, a culmination of Locke and Latham’s research showed significant levels of poor performance in studies involving participants who had a challenging goal, but were intimidated by its level. So if the goal is too difficult, it can result in poor performance.

The question is: how do you know what’s a challenging goal, and what’s a too-challenging goal?

How do you know what you can achieve before you’ve achieved it?

Lots of us will feel passionately that setting goals is ‘a good thing’. I’ve always been a firm believer in goals, plans, and anything that can fill up a nice chart. And by setting goals, you can change what happens through narrowing the activities you focus on, encouraging persistence and effort, and modifying behaviour (Locke and Budworth, 2007).

Yet the success of your goal depends on a complex array of factors. For example, the commitment you make to others regarding your goal can be a deciding factor in whether it’s achieved or not (Locke and Latham, 2002). That’s why many goal-setting guides will tell you to tell other people about what you’re doing, or why ‘check in’ weight-loss groups are often effective.

Goal difficulty and goal proximity also have a strong effect on goal setting and achievement (Steel and Konig, 2006). Goal proximity could also be known as ‘the deadline effect’. Set a goal for a year in advance and you might plan carefully and stick with it – or you might lose momentum because it’s too far away to be of concern. Set a deadline of something very difficult for next week and you could be pushed into action, or overwhelmed with the challenge.


So the research shows setting goals is not a simple task, and achieving them is even harder. As an avid goal setter and achievement queen, I found this out first hand.

In the middle of last year I set myself 12 individual goals to achieve by the end of the year, ranging from specific and timely (“Throw myself into researching for the Global Fashion conference”) to general and a bit more exciting (“Book a really good holiday”). I used Lisa Jacobs’ mid-year review to help me, and for any goal-setting nerds like me it’s a refreshing way to put your goals together.

Out of my 12 goals, by the end of the year I’d been completely successful with 50% of them. Five others I did partially, and one I sacked off completely. Can the research into goal-setting help explain why some of my goals were successful, and others weren’t?

To a greater extent, yes.

The goals I achieved most successfully were specific and challenging, but most importantly they had proximity; they were events I needed to attend, or things which had a deadline. They were also the goals where I was committed to others – either explicitly, like presenting at a conference, or implicitly, like writing articles for blog readers.

The least successful goals were vague and too challenging – too much for me to achieve in the allotted time. Importantly, they were also goals where there was no feedback system in place; no-one to talk to about my progress or my “improvement in time management” or whatever goal it was.

The most radical difference between my successful and unsuccessful goals was whether or not I was learning something. Goal-setting research distinguishes between learning goals – where one is exploring and developing knowledge – and performance goals, where something definitive must be achieved.

Where I had learning goals, I succeeded to some extent – even if they were vague, like “Do more interesting research”. Where I had performance goals, I was much more likely to fail.

One of the reasons for this is clear: 

For complex tasks, goal-setting may actually impair performance (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997)

We’re so focused on ticking the box of a performance task that we end up doing anything we can to get there, which might bypass the learning opportunities available with complex tasks. I love learning, so I instinctively strayed from those goals where learning wasn’t a key factor.

Something to consider is our contemporary culture of setting #goals, openly or subconsciously, for every area of your life, from breakfast to relationships. And yet, I can’t think of a more “complex task” than life itself. What’s the effect of this consistent reduction of the complex task performance of life into a series of performance goals? What are we missing out on learning by prioritising tick-box achievements?

My yoga teacher often talks about ‘making the shape’ of the posture, but not really embodying the posture fully. I see the #goals culture in the same way; we are ‘making the shape’ of the achievement, helping it be visible to others, but not embodying achievement as it applies to our idiosyncratic and very complex lives.

In practice

The result from my investigations and my personal experience is to rethink what goals mean to me, and to work with the proven flows of my mind, rather than against it.

First, I’ve significantly reduced the number of goals I have for this year; in the last six months of 2016 it was 12; for 2017 I have just four. My criteria for this year is ‘experimentation’, helping me put learning at the heart of what I’m doing, and my goals are all oriented to learning, which means I much more likely to commit to and therefore achieve them.

I’ve built in clear sharing and feedback mechanisms, not only so I have committed to others but so my goals aren’t lonely. Plus, I’ve made them much more diverse; last year I focused predominantly on work, but this year they cover much broader areas of my life.


Understanding how the process of goal-setting can affect your success in achieving goals is key to making them enjoyable and meaningful, rather than binding rules or likely failures which knock your confidence.

I hope this research and my experience has helped you look with fresh eyes at your New Year’s resolutions. If you’d like some further support read Five Clear Ways to Help You Keep Your New Year’s Resolutions.


Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1997). Finding flow: the psychology of engagement with everyday life. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0465045138. OCLC 36315862.

Latham, Gary P.; Budworth, Marie-Hélène (2007). “The study of work motivation in the 20th century”. In Koppes, Laura L.; Thayer, Paul W.; Vinchur, Andrew J.; Salas, Eduardo. Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology. Series in applied psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 353–382 (366). ISBN 0805844406. OCLC 71725282.

Locke, Edwin A.; Latham, Gary P. (September 2002). “Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: a 35-year odyssey” (PDF). American Psychologist. 57 (9): 705–717. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.57.9.705. PMID 12237980.

Locke, Edwin A.; Latham, Gary P. (October 2006). “New directions in goal-setting theory” (PDF). Current Directions in Psychological Science. 15 (5): 265–268. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2006.00449.x.

Locke, Edwin A.; Shaw, Karyll N.; Saari, Lise M..; Latham, Gary P. (July 1981), “Goal setting and task performance: 1969–1980” (PDF), Psychological Bulletin, 90 (1): 125–152, doi:10.1037/0033-2909.90.1.125, retrieved 2010-06-01

Steel, Piers; König, Cornelius J. (October 2006). “Integrating theories of motivation” (PDF). Academy of Management Review. 31 (4): 889–913. doi:10.5465/AMR.2006.22527462.

Five Clear Ways to Help You Keep Your New Year’s Resolutions


Despite January being a terrible month for positive vibes, weather and cash flow, many of us are still riding high on the continuing success of our New Year’s resolutions. Whether it’s exercising more, going on Facebook less or simply letting things be, there’s plenty of research behind why setting goals can be effective in helping us succeed.

But there are also many studies which show goals which are too challenging or limiting can significantly impair our behaviour.

From investigating some of the theory behind goal-setting, and my own experiences from 2016, here are five tips to help you keep your New Year’s resolutions – and avoid being one of the 60% who fail after six months (Norcross, 2012).

5-clear-ways-to keep your new year's resolutions

Choose fewer, clearer goals

Last year I decided to write down 12 goals halfway through the year, which I wanted to achieve by the end of 2016. That was an overwhelming number, and my attention was spread too thinly.

One of the strongest reasons for setting goals is to help us focus our attention on what really matters (Latham and Budworth, 2007), so if you have a list of more than five goals for 2017, I suggest stopping right there. And maybe cutting it down a little.

Focus on learning rather than performance goals

My experience from last year showed I was most likely to achieve a goal where I had to learn things (like “Write more blog posts”) rather than one which was focused on performance (like “Be more disciplined about my time”). This is reflected in goal-setting literature, which suggests goal-setting for complex tasks where learning is required can have a negative impact on performance.

Try focusing on learning goals for this year, where you get to explore new topics and develop knowledge; you might find them more enjoyable, as well as giving you a greater chance of success.

Be clear on difficulty and proximity

The difficulty of your chosen goal and its proximity – the amount of time you have to achieve it – are very important, particularly if you do decide to set performance goals like “Lift the biggest weights in the gym” (Steel and Konig, 2006). A distant deadline may give you a false sense of security; regular check-ins are much more likely to keep you on track. Don’t just set a final deadline – set mini-deadlines to help you.

Difficulty is hard to measure yourself – how do you know what you can achieve before you’ve achieved it? – so take time to speak to others who have been successful in their goals, or who are experts in their field. I don’t think you should be too realistic because ambition can be encouraging, but don’t make it so difficult it becomes killer to try and achieve a single goal.

Build in feedback and sharing mechanisms

The success of your goal depends partly on the commitment you make to other people regarding the goal – either by telling them, or by including them in your goal (Locke and Latham, 2012). By sharing your goal with others, it can encourage accountability and realism. More importantly it reduces the loneliness of goal-achieving.

Feedback is also key. Another element which contributes to the success of goal-setting is self-efficacy – the belief you have that you can achieve that goal. Positive and critical feedback from others can help you develop self-efficacy and keep you on the path to success.

Make your goals diverse

The old saying of “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket” applies to goals. Last year, nine of my 12 goals related to work. I did well at work, but other parts of my life suffered. This year, I have four goals spread evenly across essential areas of my life.

Take time to make your goals diverse, ensuring you are focusing attention and caring for a rich variety of things in your life. You’ll gain greater pleasure from feeling your whole life being enlivened by your goal-achieving activities, and you’ll make a more interesting dinner party guest.

Having goals is something many of us consider ‘a good thing’, so try making 2017 a year where you set – and achieve – goals you can be really proud of by following these five tips.

If you want to find out more about the science of goal-setting, and my own experience, read How the Research Behind Keeping New Year’s Resolutions Can Help You Set Better Goals.

What are your goals for this year?


Latham, Gary P.; Budworth, Marie-Hélène (2007). “The study of work motivation in the 20th century”. In Koppes, Laura L.; Thayer, Paul W.; Vinchur, Andrew J.; Salas, Eduardo. Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology. Series in applied psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 353–382 (366). ISBN 0805844406. OCLC 71725282.

Locke, Edwin A.; Latham, Gary P. (September 2002). “Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: a 35-year odyssey” (PDF). American Psychologist. 57 (9): 705–717. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.57.9.705. PMID 12237980.

Steel, Piers; König, Cornelius J. (October 2006). “Integrating theories of motivation” (PDF). Academy of Management Review. 31 (4): 889–913. doi:10.5465/AMR.2006.22527462.

Rethinking Your 2016 Goals: How to Make them More Enjoyable

Rethink Your 2016 Goals - Pinterest 4 - Eleanor Snare

A month into 2016, do you still care about your goals as much as you did on January 1st?

Research conducted by the University of Scranton showed that of all the people in the US who regularly make resolutions only 8% of them manage to fulfil them.

I get that; last year I made five big yearly goals based around my freelance work and lecturing. By the end of the year, I’d only truly fulfilled one of them.

It wasn’t because I hadn’t tried. It was because I hadn’t set the goals in the right way.

But I only understood that at the end of the year, when it came to setting goals for 2016. The rest of the year I’d been tough on myself for not hitting those goals, even though I’d been doing loads of other stuff I really loved.

Reconsidering how and why I set goals before writing down my aims for 2016 meant I’ve been able to make goals which are not only achievable, but actually enjoyable too.

Here I’ll share with you what I’ve learnt from experience and reading so you can reclaim some of the same passion for your goals and enjoy fulfilling them throughout the year.

Find areas of focus, rather than SMART goals

Rethink Your 2016 Goals - Twitter 2.a - Eleanor Snare

All of my goals last year used the SMART method, which people generally think is a good way of making goals and helping you achieve them. The SMART method means your goals are Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Time-bound.

The problem is, life isn’t SMART. Lots of types of goals aren’t SMART. You can use SMART steps to achieve a goal (more on that later) but often our big goals aren’t going to fit neatly into these boxes.

I found that when I articulated my goals in SMART ways, I ended up doing the bare minimum to fulfil the terms of my goal’s ‘contract’. I didn’t really enjoy it either, as it felt like I was just ticking a box.

As an example, here’s one of my goals from 2015:

By the end of the year I will have written at least two blog posts a month from March to December on fashion, communication or sustainable business.

This felt like a huge chore. When I couldn’t write two posts a month I felt awful about it and when I did write two I wasn’t that excited because it was just part of my ‘to do’ list.

For 2016, I skipped the SMART description and looked at bigger areas of focus. Articulating my goals around these areas has made them much more enjoyable and – so far – immensely achievable.

The difference between the two is the scope of what your goal encompasses and the phrasing you use. Last year it was about “at least two blog posts a month”. This year, my goal is to:

Create meaningful content and an engaged audience on my website

By giving my goal a focus area I have the freedom to try a range of things to achieve it, rather than tie myself down to a specific output. And I’m focusing less on getting it done and more about whether I’m enjoying what I’m doing.

These sort of goals are about quality, not quantity – for what you’re achieving and the process of doing it.


Choose the right language to phrase your goals

Rethink Your 2016 Goals - Twitter 4 - Eleanor Snare

As a writer I’m obsessive over which words to use and when – but in writing my goals for 2015 I now realise I didn’t consider language, and the impact it would have on my goal-getting process, as closely as I should have done.

Last year, the key verbs in my goals were things like “written”, “lectured” and “organised”; all accurate but pretty dull words. The language wasn’t inspirational or enjoyable, and so my goals weren’t either.

For 2016, I described my focus area goals much more carefully. The key verbs are “enjoy”, “reflect”, “develop”, “strengthen” and “create”; a set of inspiring words that also encourage direct action.

There are more words about what I’m gaining from the goals, like “experience” and “knowledge”, and more value-driven words (like “meaningful”).

Choosing the right language for your goals is very important to help you enjoy and achieve what you set out to do. You’ll remember your goals more easily, and you’ll be more interested in working on them if you feel enthused each time you read them.


Make goals across all areas of your life and give them equal priority

Rethink Your 2016 Goals - Twitter 5 - Eleanor Snare

Often we set goals in work and education, as part of professional development, but very rarely do we set goals in every area of our life – including family, relationships, health or wellbeing.

Last year all my goals were about work and lecturing, and it meant that I missed out on friendship and personal growth. Reflecting on this, I decided two of my focus area goals in 2016 would be:

Develop my spiritual understanding and knowledge

Strengthen my family relationships and friendships

I chose these goals because they’re two areas I tend to neglect. I enjoy spending time by myself with my head stuck in something fascinating. Yet doing this too much means when I need to tap into that inner strength or external social circle, it’s not there.

These goals aren’t SMART and they’ve got nothing to do with work, but they will have a huge impact on my ability to achieve my other, professionally-focused goals and on my overall quality of life.

Setting focus area goals across all parts of your life, and giving them equal priority, is an important way to gain balance, replenish your energy and enjoy the complete goal-getting process.


Give yourself a head start with simple tasks

Rethink Your 2016 Goals - Twitter 6 - Eleanor Snare

Setting goals using the SMART method can be limiting, but breaking down goals into simple, SMART-style tasks can be incredibly useful; the same University of Scranton research I mentioned at the start also found people who planned steps to achieving their goals were 10 times more likely to succeed.

I used this method last year, where I broke down each of my SMART-articulated goals into SMART tasks. Because the goals were a like a tick-list to start with, I found that I wasn’t excited by completing the tasks – I was a bit bored.

I also forgot to make all of my tasks completely SMART. More like SMAR.

I missed out the ‘time bound’ aspect because it can be hard to judge when you’ll be able to do something, or how long it might take. Because none of the tasks had time limits, I felt no urgency to do them while at the same time freaking out that I needed to do them now.

While I was achieving things by ticking tasks off, I never felt like I was achieving them.

From this experience, once I’d set my focus area goals for 2016 I created a series of simple SMART tasks which focused closely on the T and were designed to give me a head start on achieving my goal.

I set three SMART tasks for something which I could do…

  • That day
  • That week
  • That month
  • That quarter
  • That year

…which would help me achieve my goal.

I found this process really helpful: I was brainstorming ways to fulfil my goals which I could use later on in the year, plus that day I did three things to help me get a head start on each of my big goals!

Taking a focus area goal and breaking into simple, SMART tasks is a useful way to get a head start on goals which can feel particularly nebulous in January – like setting small milestones for the rest of the year.


Reflect on your goals every day

Rethink Your 2016 Goals - Twitter 7 - Eleanor Snare

When we’re setting goals for work or education, they tend to be quite far apart; three months is maybe the minimum gap for a PDP meeting. That means we return to our goals to reflect on them only four times in a year.

In 2015, I was reflecting in a similar pattern on my goals. I returned to them to reflect when there was a big change, or I had a spare half day.

Because they were so specific, so tick-listy and a little bit boring, I didn’t want to reflect on them too closely, so I often skipped it completely.

The result was that I didn’t really experience any joy in working on my goals, or any pride when I had hit small targets. It was only at the end of the year, when I was considering goals for 2016, that I finally saw what I had achieved and fully reflected on what I had been doing.

This year, my aim is to reflect on my goals – along with all elements of my life – on a daily basis through reflective writing. Plus, my focus area goals and simple SMART tasks are in a document I look at least three times a week.

By doing this, I’m regularly thinking about what I’m enjoying, what’s not working and what small milestones I’m passing, making the whole process of achieving the goal much more pleasurable.


My goals for 2015 were exactly what I needed that year to help me manage my work.

But what I learnt from them has helped me to create goals for 2016 which I actually want to achieve – and I feel like I am achieving them in a small way each day.

Here are the five ways to do the same:

  1. Switch to focus area goals
  2. Use inspirational, value-driven language
  3. Make equal-priority goals across each part of your life
  4. Get a head start with simple SMART tasks
  5. Reflect on your goals every day

To help you rethink your 2016 goals, I’ve created a free workbook to print out and fill in. It takes you step-by-step through each of the things I’ve learnt, plus gives you plenty of inspiration for setting goals.

Get the workbook on reconsidering your 2016 goals and making them more enjoyable right here.

Thanks for reading. I’d love to hear about your goals for this year and your progress – let me know in the comments or drop me a line: